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Go Back   Talk Budgies Forums > Budgie Talk > Budgie Breeding > Mutations and Genetics


Mutations and Genetics Learn about budgie genetics and the wide variety of mutations.
Thread Description:What kinda mutations would I end up with if I crossed my two budgies...

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Old 04-21-2013, 12:38 AM
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Red face Just curious

Hi guys!
I was wondering for a little while in breeding my budgies. I know I'm not up to it yet, it would definitely take some time but in The future I think I would like to. I know the expenses that it would rack up and I don't think I'm ready for it yet but I would love to in the near future.
If I were to pair up my two budgies to mate, I would love to know what kind if outcomes that there would be possibility for. I'd like to see if anyone would care to inform me what possible outcomes there would be for a sky-blue yellow face type 2 dominant pied female and my lovely boy who is a sky blue recessive pied. I'm not quite sure what kind of background they have because of where they came from. If anyone has any guesses or advice or intel, I would love to hear it! Maybe if anyone has experienced this breeding pair before (which I know is definitely a once in a lifetime change LOL) let me know! Thanks for your time!
God bless

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Old 04-21-2013, 10:03 AM
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They are likely to produce:

Dominant Pied Skyblues
Yellowface Mutant 2 Dominant Pied Skyblues
Normal Skyblues
Normal Yellowface Mutant 2 Skyblues
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Old 04-21-2013, 10:36 AM
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That's great to know! Thank you so much! I hope you don't mind, but how do you tell that this is going to be the outcome, I'd love to learn!
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Old 04-21-2013, 05:10 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Alice-N-Noel View Post
That's great to know! Thank you so much! I hope you don't mind, but how do you tell that this is going to be the outcome, I'd love to learn!
It has to do with the working of the way their genes combine. A budgie receives a gene from each parent, and if these 2 genes have a relation between how they express themselves, then it will affect the budgie's visual form.

We have genes of mutations that are Dominant (the dominant mutation is expressed by inhibiting the recessive gene to show itself), Recessive (genes that only allow the bird to show its visual form if it inherits 1 allele from each parent, as in 2 copies of the gene for that specific mutation), and genes that are codominant (genes which do not dominate or hide, but coexist with one another and are expressed together.

We take Normal to be the standard. Normals are birds with black marking, blue tails, with white coloured face in Blue series and Yellow coloured face in green series.

Dominant Pied is Dominant over Normal. It will interact with the Normal allele and inhibit its ability to express itself. Therefore a budgie inheriting a Normal gene from one parent and a Dominant Pied gene from another is genetically a Single Factor Dominant Pied who is split for (or hiding) Normal.

Yellowface is also Dominant over Normal, and codominant with Dominant Pied.

Recessive Pied is Recessive to Normal. So a bird has to receive the genes for Recessive Pied from both parents to be a visual Recessive Pied, otherwise it will be a Normal.

Skyblue is a bird that has no Dark Factor. 1 Dark factor would make it a Cobalt and 2 Dark factors would make it a Mauve. Dark factor is Dominant. So breeding 2 Skyblues will only result in Skyblues, as their chicks won;t inherit any Dark Factor from the parents.

So Parent 1 passes the gene for Dominant Pied and Parent 2 for Recessive Pied gene.
So you have a Chick which will be a Dominant Pied as it is Dominant over both Recessive Pied and Normal.

Parent 1 Passes YF2 gene and Parent 2 passes on Normal gene. YF2 Dominates and you get a YF2 Chick.

If both events above occur, you get Dominant Pied YF2 chicks.

You do not get any Recessive Pied chicks because the babies will receive the Recessive Pied gene from 1 parent only, so they will all have one copy of the Gene which will be inhibited by Normal and Dominant Pied mutations.

However in the future, if you choose to breed one of these chicks to another Recessive Pied budgie, then there's a possibility that some chicks might be Recessive Pieds (as both parents will probably pass on their Recessive Pied genes to one chick).

Genetics is all about random occurrences and the way they combine. You can only predict what might happen, but no matter how low or high the chances are of producing certain mutation...for example, if you're hoping to get all Dominant Pieds because it is dominant over both Normal and Recessive Pied...you just might end up with ALL Normal chicks.

I know it's a lot to take in but I hope I was able to make something make sense at least.

If you have studied Mendel's Laws then it will be easier to understand the concept. If you haven't you can have a look here.

Then you'll need to know which mutations are Dominant, Co-Dominant, Sex-Linked Recessive and Recessive to the Standard Normal. Click here to get an idea about them.
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Old 04-21-2013, 10:35 PM
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Thank you so much! That was amazing! I will definitely take this all into consideration!
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Old 04-22-2013, 12:13 AM
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Is your yellowface female a single or double factor yellowface type II? Single factor YF II's have a yellow face and a seafoam green body, while double factor YF II's have a yellow face and sea green body colour that spreads as far as their upper chest.

So, if your female is a single factor yellowface type II and not split for recessive pied, the results would be:
25% sky blue single factor YF II dominant pied split for recessive pied
25% sky blue normal SF YF II split for r. pied
25% sky blue d. pied split for r. pied
25% sky blue split for r. pied

If your female is a double factor yellowface type II and not split for recessive pied, the results would be:
50% sky blue SF YF II d. pied split for r. pied
50% sky blue normal SF YF II split for r. pied

The study of genetics can be very complicated but it is very interesting! You should look into it!
Co-dominance means that both traits shown together (like pied budgies and full body colour greywings).
Incomplete dominance means a blending of traits (like yellowface budgies when the yellow blends with blue to make green).
Semi-dominance refers to traits that are only expressed in the presence of other traits (like how violet factors work with dark factors).
Sex-linked means that the gene in question is carried on the X (or rather Z) chromosome (like opaline, cinnamon and albino).
Multiple alleles means that there are three or more forms of a gene for a trait (like with blood groups or greywing/clearwing/dilute budgies).
And then you get into more complicated stuff like pleiotropy, multifactorial inheritance, complementation, epistasis, expressivity, sex-influenced traits, sex-limited traits, conditional lethality, variance, penetrance and such and learn that although many genes seem to act in a simple dominant-recessive manner, they are way more complex (like yellowface genetics).

I hope I helped, good luck!
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Old 04-27-2013, 09:26 AM
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Thank ou as well! This really is great to know! I am definitely going to do much more research and find out a think or two about genetics. I do believe that the female is white based with type two yellowface because her entire body is yellow (with a little patch of blue on her back between her wings) so thanks a lot for letting me know!

EDIT. I meant yellow face type two single factor
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