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Go Back   Talk Budgies Forums > Budgie Talk > Budgie Breeding > Mutations and Genetics


Mutations and Genetics Learn about budgie genetics and the wide variety of mutations.

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Old 05-13-2015, 01:00 AM
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Default Explanation of genetics and mutations?

Hi everyone, I'm pretty new to breeding budgies, but I have found that I am fascinated with their genetics and and mutations. The problem is, I'm having a hard time understanding everything . Can anyone give my a simple explanation on single and double factors, and how it all works? Sorry if my question is too broad, I just really want to know everything about my little feathered friends

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Old 05-13-2015, 01:19 AM
JWKnight (J.W.)
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Originally Posted by Valentino View Post
Hi everyone, I'm pretty new to breeding budgies, but I have found that I am fascinated with their genetics and and mutations. The problem is, I'm having a hard time understanding everything . Can anyone give my a simple explanation on single and double factors, and how it all works? Sorry if my question is too broad, I just really want to know everything about my little feathered friends
Simplest answer I can give....

In a Male budgie you have two X chromosomes
In a Female Budgie you have an X and a Y ....

A double factor is when that mutation exists on either both X's in the male. Or on both the X and the Y in a female.

For instance.

A violet factor can exist on both X and Y chromosomes. Thus, if you have a male budgie that has 2 violet X's he is a df violet. However, if you have a male budgie that has only one violet x he is a sf violet.

Then you get into Sex linked genes. These genes only exist on the X chromosome, and only show up if all X's in the bird have that gene.

For instance.

Ino is sex linked gene...

If a male budgie has one X that is Ino, and one that is normal, then you have a budgie that is split to Ino ((since it doesn't show up))((these are also hard to prove until being bred to an Ino))

But if you have a female, she is either Ino or she is not. Because she only has one X,thus if the Ino gene is present on it, it shows up, if it's not, it doesn't.

I hope this was simple enough.
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Old 05-13-2015, 01:34 AM
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Thank you! That helped a lot. So if a budgie is sf or df does that effect it's coloration, so you can tell by looking at it? And are all traits sex linked, or are some dominant and some recessive? Thanks!
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Old 05-13-2015, 07:48 AM
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Hi and to Talk Budgies!

Please take a look at these links as well as the informative "stickies" in the Mutations and Genetics section of the forum:

https://talkbudgies.com/mutations-gen...mutations.html

Budgie Mutation And Color Guide - Cute Little Birdies Aviary

To familiarize yourself with the forums, please take the time to read through all of the How To Guides, the FAQs and the stickies located at the top of each section of the forum.
You'll find most of your basic questions are answered after you've read through all of them.

I'm looking forward to hearing all about your budgie and hopefully seeing some pictures soon!!

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Old 05-13-2015, 06:54 PM
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Originally Posted by Valentino View Post
Thank you! That helped a lot. So if a budgie is sf or df does that effect it's coloration, so you can tell by looking at it? And are all traits sex linked, or are some dominant and some recessive? Thanks!
Only some mutations are sex linked.

Ino, Cinnamon, Opaline, Texas Clearbody...

The rest of the mutations can be found on both X & Y
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Old 05-13-2015, 07:46 PM
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Not quite right there..

Sex-linked genes are only found on the sex chromosomes, the X and Y (though no known colour genes are on the Y chromosome but it is important in sex-linked inheritance). All other genes are on the autosomal chromosomes and are in no way related to the X and Y chromosomes.

It is a very big subject to understand but if you want to work through it step by step then try:
Budgie Genetics For Owners And Breeders

otherwise, just ask specific questions, though without the background info you may end up with lots of pieces that you don't know how to fit together...

Last edited by tonic; 05-13-2015 at 08:14 PM.
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Old 05-13-2015, 07:49 PM
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Thank you all for the advice and tips great website also.. I'll be sure to read it!
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Old 05-13-2015, 08:31 PM
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Hi there and welcome to TB!
It's great to hear you're interested in budgie genetics, I personally love genetics, especially in budgies as I agree that they're really interesting
Toni is correct, the only traits located on the X and Y chromosomes are sex-linked, in which case females will always show the trait since they only have one copy of the gene (on their only x chromosome) and males will need two factors on both X chromosomes.

Other factors are present in the other alleles of the chromosomes, which means none of the other traits are related directly to gender.

Also, I'd like to add that some visual traits occur concurrently and some don't.
For example, you can have co-dominant spangle and opaline, making it spangle opaline, but you can't have both normal and opaline, as opaline is a variation of normal and therefore "replaces" the normal striping pattern.
Similarly, the violet factor acts in a similar manner as it is an added color factor and exists as incomplete dominance with blue series and green series birds. Sf (single factor) violet birds have a 50% chance of passing on the violet gene whereas the Df (double factor) gene makes it 100% that all the babies will be at least sf violet factored.
I hope this helps, and like Deb said, there are tons of informational articles on mutations, good luck on studying
Hope to see you around soon!
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Old 05-14-2015, 12:35 AM
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Originally Posted by StarlingWings View Post
Hi there and welcome to TB!
It's great to hear you're interested in budgie genetics, I personally love genetics, especially in budgies as I agree that they're really interesting
Toni is correct, the only traits located on the X and Y chromosomes are sex-linked, in which case females will always show the trait since they only have one copy of the gene (on their only x chromosome) and males will need two factors on both X chromosomes.

Other factors are present in the other alleles of the chromosomes, which means none of the other traits are related directly to gender.

Also, I'd like to add that some visual traits occur concurrently and some don't.
For example, you can have co-dominant spangle and opaline, making it spangle opaline, but you can't have both normal and opaline, as opaline is a variation of normal and therefore "replaces" the normal striping pattern.
Similarly, the violet factor acts in a similar manner as it is an added color factor and exists as incomplete dominance with blue series and green series birds. Sf (single factor) violet birds have a 50% chance of passing on the violet gene whereas the Df (double factor) gene makes it 100% that all the babies will be at least sf violet factored.
I hope this helps, and like Deb said, there are tons of informational articles on mutations, good luck on studying
Hope to see you around soon!
I'm sure you meant you can't have normal and spangle in the same bird, since Opaline is a sex linked gene that can occur in any bird.

Last edited by JWKnight; 05-14-2015 at 12:36 AM.
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